Think Waldorf 想想華德福 - 天使基路伯解密 Angel Cherub Cherubim - 通達人驛站
2015/9/17

Think Waldorf 想想華德福 - 天使基路伯解密 Angel Cherub Cherubim

我在網路上看到了一篇《有人撿到一個箱子》,裏面提供一些很神密的照片。後來,我找到一開始的原文網站《The Box of Crazy》,裏面有更多的照片。
Cherub and his wheel
這篇文章內,我重新整理了中文的和合本 、和英文的 King James Version 聖經內對基路伯的描述,並輔以原文網站《The Box of Crazy》內照片詳細介紹基路伯。

先講結論好了,我認為這些圖上畫的其實就是聖經上基路伯的假想圖。此外,我認為基路伯根本不能算是天使,至少不能算是典型的天使,而只是某種俱有智能的飛行載具的下部結構,上部結構則是一個可供上帝或天使乘坐的駕駛座。

關於「天使」或「基路伯」 (Cherub、Cherubim) ,我寫過一篇《聖經中的天使》,討論聖經中天使的樣貌與任務,其中我又特別整理了聖經中對「基路伯」 (Cherub) 的描述,建議大家可以先看看。

基路伯的臉 Cherub's four faces


從《以西結書》來看,基路伯有四張臉是肯定的。但以西結在不同章節對這四張臉的描述略有不同:
  • 人、獅、牛、鷹4臉(結1:10)
  • 人、獅、基路伯、鷹4臉(結10:14)
比較這兩處描述後,會得到「基路伯的臉很可能是牛面」的推論。

「至於臉的形像:前面各有人的臉,右面各有獅子的臉,左面各有牛的臉,後面各有鷹的臉。」(結1:10)
"As for the likeness of their faces, they four had the face of a man, and the face of a lion, on the right side: and they four had the face of an ox on the left side; they four also had the face of an eagle."(Ezekiel 1:10)
「基路伯各有四臉:第一是基路伯的臉,第二是人的臉,第三是獅子的臉,第四是鷹的臉。」(結10:14)
"And every one had four faces: the first face was the face of a Cherub, and the second face was the face of a man, and the third the face of a lion, and the fourth the face of an eagle." (Ezekiel 10:14)

The left side of Cherub's four heads
The right side of Cherub's four heads

基路伯的身體 Cherub's body


基路伯俱有類似人的形像,有四個翅膀,四面的翅膀下有人的手。上面的兩個翅膀相接,下面的兩個翅膀遮住身體,要移動時會把翅膀張開。他們的腿是直的,腳掌卻像牛蹄,外表燦爛光明。

「...他們的形狀是這樣:有人的形像,各有四個臉面,四個翅膀。他們的腿是直的,腳掌好像牛犢之蹄,都燦爛如光明的銅。在四面的翅膀以下有人的手。」(結1:5-8)
"And this was their appearance; they had the likeness of a man. And every one had four faces, and every one had four wings. And their feet were straight feet; and the sole of their feet was like the sole of a calf's foot: and they sparkled like the colour of burnished brass. And they had the hands of a man under their wings on their four sides." (Ezekiel 1:5-8)
「各展開上邊的兩個翅膀相接,各以下邊的兩個翅膀遮體。」(結1:11)
"Thus were their faces: and their wings were stretched upward; two wings of every one were joined one to another, and two covered their bodies." (Ezekiel 1:11)
「基路伯出去的時候,就展開翅膀,在我眼前離地上升。」(結10:19)
"And the cherubims lifted up their wings, and mounted up from the earth in my sight." (Ezekiel 10:19)

Cherub has wings and man's hand under wings
我不大認同基路伯長出尾巴來,因為聖經內對此並沒有任何描述,這純淬是這個畫家的想像。
Cherub has wings and man's hand under wings

基路伯全身和他的輪子上面都佈滿了眼睛 Cherub's whole body is full of eyes


基路伯的全身和他的輪子上面都佈滿了眼睛。但以西結沒有特別描述這個眼睛除了外觀外,是否還俱有其他眼睛的特性(如眨眼),所以我們無法知道以西結為什麼以「眼睛」來描述這個特徵。

我個人猜測是因為基路伯的身上有某些孔洞或指示燈,可能具有類似飛機上的指示燈會散發細小的光芒,以做為維修或地勤人員判斷飛機狀態的依據。只是單純以圖面來看,我認為基路伯全身的「眼睛」數量實在太少,和英文聖經內的 "full of eyes" (充滿)完全不符。

「他們全身,連背帶手和翅膀,並輪周圍都滿了眼睛。這四個基路伯的輪子都是如此。」(結10:12)
"And their whole body, and their backs, and their hands, and their wings, and the wheels, were full of eyes round about, even the wheels that they four had." (Ezekiel 10:12)

The Cherub's whole body is full of eyes

基路伯輪子的外觀 The appearance of Cherub's wheel


每個基路伯下方都有一個輪子,輪子是青色的,輪子裏面還有一個輪子。基路伯的輪內有肉眼可見其動作的「靈」引導基路伯動作。輪子不論行走或飛行,都會自動轉向基路伯面對的方向,並一直跟在基路伯身旁。

我認為,這個輪子很可能是一種長得像「陀螺儀」的裝置,在其中有一個肉眼可見其動作的「靈」引導基路伯動作。
陀螺儀
(圖片來源:維基百科)
「我正觀看活物的時候,見活物的臉旁各有一輪在地上。輪的形狀和顏色(原文是作法)好像水蒼玉。四輪都是一個樣式,形狀和作法好像輪中套輪。輪行走的時候,向四方都能直行,並不掉轉。活物行走,輪也在旁邊行走;活物從地上升,輪也都上升。靈往哪裡去,活物就往那裡去;活物上升,輪也在活物旁邊上升,因為活物的靈在輪中。」 (結1:15-20)
"Now as I beheld the living creatures, behold one wheel upon the earth by the living creatures, with his four faces. The appearance of the wheels and their work was like unto the colour of a beryl: and they four had one likeness: and their appearance and their work was as it were a wheel in the middle of a wheel. When they went, they went upon their four sides: and they turned not when they went. And when the living creatures went, the wheels went by them: and when the living creatures were lifted up from the earth, the wheels were lifted up. Whithersoever the spirit was to go, they went, thither was their spirit to go; and the wheels were lifted up over against them: for the spirit of the living creature was in the wheels." (Ezekiel 1:15-20)
「基路伯行走,輪也在旁邊行走。基路伯展開翅膀,離地上升,輪也不轉離他們旁邊。那些站住,這些也站住;那些上升,這些也一同上升,因為活物的靈在輪中。」(結10:16-17)
"And when the Cherubims went, the wheels went by them: and when the Cherubims lifted up their wings to mount up from the earth, the same wheels also turned not from beside them. When they stood, these stood; and when they were lifted up, these lifted up themselves also: for the spirit of the living creature was in them." (Ezekiel 10:16-17)
「輪行走的時候,向四方都能直行,並不掉轉。頭向何方,他們也隨向何方,行走的時候並不掉轉。」(結10:11)
"When they went, they went upon their four sides; they turned not as they went, but to the place whither the head looked they followed it; they turned not as they went." (Ezekiel 10:11)
「我又觀看,見基路伯旁邊有四個輪子。這基路伯旁有一個輪子,那基路伯旁有一個輪子,每基路伯都是如此;輪子的顏色(原文是形狀)彷彿水蒼玉。」(結10:9)
"And when I looked, behold the four wheels by the Cherubims, one wheel by one Cherub, and another wheel by another Cherub: and the appearance of the wheels was as the colour of a beryl stone." (Ezekiel 10:9)

關於輪子的描述我和這個畫家有不同看法:
照片的細節差異處我的看法
基路伯身旁輪子的位置基路伯下方
每個基路伯有 2 個輪子輪子的數目每個基路伯有 1 個輪子
有裝置把基路伯和輪子相連輪子的數目每個基路伯只有 1 個輪子
The detail of Cherub's wheel
The side of Cherub's wheel will follow Cherub's head looked
The color of Cherub's wheel may be blue

基路伯輪子內的火 The fire in the cherubims's wheel


基路伯的輪子內似乎有一種類似火炎可以發光的固體,可以被基路伯的手取出來,但從描述中無法推測這個「火」的用途。但以後面用「撒」的動作來推測,輪內的火應該有數個,所以才會在離開手後四散、用「撒」這個動作。

「他吩咐那穿細麻衣的人說:要從旋轉的輪內基路伯中間取火。那人就進去站在一個輪子旁邊。有一個基路伯從基路伯中伸手到基路伯中間的火那裡,取些放在那穿細麻衣的人兩手中,那人就拿出去了。」 (結10:6-7)
"And it came to pass, that when he had commanded the man clothed with linen, saying, Take fire from between the wheels, from between the cherubims; then he went in, and stood beside the wheels. And one cherub stretched forth his hand from between the cherubims unto the fire that was between the cherubims, and took thereof, and put it into the hands of him that was clothed with linen: who took it, and went out." (Ezekiel 10:6-7)
「主對那穿細麻衣的人說:你進去,在旋轉的輪內基路伯以下,從基路伯中間將火炭取滿兩手,撒在城上。我就見他進去。」(結10:2)
"And he spake unto the man clothed with linen, and said, Go in between the wheels, even under the Cherub, and fill thine hand with coals of fire from between the Cherubims, and scatter them over the city. And he went in in my sight. "(Ezekiel 10:2)


基路伯頭上方的座椅 the throne above the head of the cherubims


在基路伯的上面有一個藍色半透明的座位,上面似乎坐了一個人,這似乎表示基路伯是一種交通工具,而且這個交通工具的停放位置是在耶和華殿的東門口。

「我觀看,見基路伯頭上的穹蒼之中,顯出藍寶石的形狀,彷彿寶座的形像。」 (結10:1)
"Then I looked, and, behold, in the firmament that was above the head of the cherubims there appeared over them as it were a sapphire stone, as the appearance of the likeness of a throne." (Ezekiel 10:1)
在他們頭以上的穹蒼之上有寶座的形像,彷彿藍寶石;在寶座形像以上有彷彿人的形狀。 (結1:26)
"And above the firmament that was over their heads was the likeness of a throne, as the appearance of a sapphire stone: and upon the likeness of the throne was the likeness as the appearance of a man above upon it." (Ezekiel 1:26)
「基路伯出去的時候,就展開翅膀,在我眼前離地上升。輪也在他們的旁邊,都停在耶和華殿的東門口。在他們以上有以色列神的榮耀。」 (結10:19)
"And the cherubims lifted up their wings, and mounted up from the earth in my sight: when they went out, the wheels also were beside them, and every one stood at the door of the east gate of the LORD's house; and the glory of the God of Israel was over them above." (Ezekiel 10:19)


基路伯和天使的外觀差異 the difference of appearance between cherubim and angel


除了這些照片內描述的基路伯外,聖經內描述的天使外觀和基路伯有極大差異。這是我認為基路伯不是天使的主要原因之一。

天使的尺度(高度、身材)與人相同,有些天使沒有翅膀,需要靠梯子才能上下天堂;有些也可不藉助其他方式(如:翅膀)離開地面升天。有些天使有一對翅膀,可以利用翅膀飛行;但有少部份天使(撒拉弗)是三對翅膀:用兩個翅膀遮臉,兩個翅膀遮腳,兩個翅膀飛翔。

天使也可以騎馬,這表示天使可能有腳,但也表示這些馬可以跑得比天使快,如果換算下來,這表示天使行走的速度可能不會超過60公里/小時。但天使的飛行速度是在人眼可見的,我推估天使的飛行速度應該在音速(1193公里/小時)以內。

天使是一個靈體,這可能是天使不會死的原因。在極少情況下天使可以實體化以觸踫物質。人不一定能見著天使,但天使可以選擇性地被他所決定的對象看到,如:驢或某些人。

天使會散發光芒,但不確定這是否就與人類有很明顯的差異之處,或是指他們的長相與當時中亞的人不同,以致於很容易識別。有些天使頭上有服權柄的記號,但不確定這是否指的正是天使頭上會發光,或是其他的記號,所以才會讓人一望就能識別。天使穿著潔白的衣服,但不確定這些潔白的衣服就是使天使發光的原因。

上述天使的描述所引用的經文在本文省略,請直接參見《聖經中的天使》一文。

上帝和基路伯的關係 the relationship between god and cherubim


簡單地說,基路伯是上帝的載具。所以,大衛和以賽亞都直接以載具描述上帝和基路伯的關係,只是基路伯是以成對的方式使用。另外,大衛還進一步描述上帝坐上基路伯後會引起大地的振動,但沒有其他的經文能進一步說明,是上帝的能力讓地震動;仰或是基路伯啟動後所引起的震動。

「耶和華作王;萬民當戰抖!他坐在二基路伯上,地當動搖。」(詩99:1)
"The LORD reigneth; let the people tremble: he sitteth between the cherubims; let the earth be moved. "(Psalms 99:1)
「坐在二基路伯上萬軍之耶和華─以色列的神啊,你─惟有你是天下萬國的神,你曾創造天地。」 (賽37:16)
"O LORD of hosts, God of Israel, that dwellest between the cherubims, thou art the God, even thou alone, of all the kingdoms of the earth: thou hast made heaven and earth. "(Isaiah 37:16)


基路伯和天使的任務差異 the difference of mission between cherubim and angel


基路伯除了是一個載具外,還是一個俱有智能的工具,所以《創世記》內使用「安設」(英文 placed)的字眼描述設置基路伯的過程。如果基路伯真的是個我們認知中的天使,那上帝就直接像其他經文內用吩咐的,天使就會自己過去了,不需要用「安設」的字眼。

此外,創世紀裏面把「基路伯」和「四面轉動發火焰的劍」並列,就我來看,「四面轉動發火焰的劍」凸顯出基路伯主控端的角色!這表示基路伯除了是工具外,本身應該具備視線/聲音/動態視線其中之一的 sensor,再配合具有智慧的控制邏輯,能判斷是否有「具有人外觀的物體」在特定地點移動。

所以,我認為在聖經內基路伯除了是一種交通載具外,還可以說是一種保全裝備的控制設備。

「於是把他趕出去了;又在伊甸園的東邊安設基路伯和四面轉動發火焰的劍,要把守生命樹的道路。」(創3:24)
"So he drove out the man; and he placed at the east of the garden of Eden Cherubims, and a flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way of the tree of life." (Genesis 3:24)


結論 Conclusion


綜合以上的描述後,我們可以得出以下的結論。

基路伯的外觀不大像天使,至少不像是典型的天使外貌。

基路伯最主要是做上帝的交通載具的下層結構,由一個像是陀螺儀的導引裝置引導基路伯動作。載具的上層有一個藍色半透明的座位。這個交通載具必須成對的使用,而且使用時會有聲音,具可能會引起大地的振動。

此外,基路伯還可以說是一種保全裝備的控制端設備,能搭配其他裝置(如武器)做為保全設備使用。

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